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North America's Leading Energy Event
June 9 - 11, 2020
Stampede Park - Calgary, Canada

Poster Session

Technical posters cover a wide range of topics in the energy industry and will be presented on the exhibition floor during specific scheduled times throughout the three days at Global Energy Show.

Poster topics covered include:

  • Alternative Energy
  • Drilling & Completion
  • E&P Geoscience
  • Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)
  • Environmental Management
  • Field Development & Infrastructure
  • Health & Safety
  • People & Talent
  • Pipeline & Processing Facilities
  • Post Production
  • Reservoir Engineering

Free to view and attend with exhibition visitor and conference registration badge

Location: Hall DE, BMO Centre, Stampede Park

Come and meet the authors of the posters at designated times throughout the three days of the exhibition and conference.

June 9, 2020

12:00 PM – 1:30 PM

2:30 PM – 3:00 PM

June 10, 2020

10:00 AM – 10:30 AM

12:00 PM – 1:30 PM

2:30 PM – 3:00 PM

June 11, 2020

10:00 AM – 10:30 AM

12:00 PM – 1:30 PM

Modelling of nanofluids injection as wettability modifiers

Category: Reservoir Engineering

It is well known that the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery is primarily affected by several chemical compounds injected by different processes to the reservoir; nevertheless, in recent years an enormous expectation in procedures using nanofluids as local wettability modifier agents has grown, being subject of debate in the experimental literature, modelling and simulation on core samples and field cases. This work proposes a new model based on phenomenological transport and retention principles for nanoparticles on a hypothetical volatile-oil reservoir in order to predict their perdurability as a treatment in porous media and to measure their wettability alterations effects in real-time. This study involves gathered knowledge from literature and evaluates mathematical performance according to the oil production subsequent to an intervention with a nanofluid, which also adopts the current model to a field pilot case, to contribute the prediction of oil recovery factor after the nanofluid injection with the specific purpose of modifying the rock wettability. The model is based on transport equations and local relative permeability alteration to explore the way how oil recovery factor depends on nanoparticles retained onto rock. Retention coefficient, mobilization coefficient and maximum retention capacity of the rock are considered, which are unique to each type and size of nanoparticles, making possible to reasonably predict any other scenario with identical nanoparticles. The model was compared with experimental data at laboratory scale of multiple core samples which demonstrated that this retention/mobilization model is capable to reliably predict nanoparticles transport and its significant interactions in porous media. Perdurability was modelled and simulated in the hypothetical scenario proposed, whereas oil recovery factor was compared to an injection scenario in the absence of nanoparticles as a reference. Experimental pilot matched reasonably well to perdurability of nanoparticles simulated with the current model where observations made sense due to nanoparticles are typically retained by adsorption mechanisms in porous media and eventually withdrawn by fluid flow production as a dragging effect. This model equally predicts the nanoparticle concentration distribution on wetting phases, its dynamic retention on matrix surface and its further perdurability. In addition, oil recovery factor is used as a comparison to the experimental data, even though is undoubtedly relevant for the impact on oil & gas industry. Furthermore, rock wettability alteration was observed since two sets of relative permeability curves with different rock wettability were used as a function of nanoparticles retained onto rock which stood for prior-to-afterward nanoparticles treatment previously obtained in a laboratory. In consequence, incremental oil production data after a stimulation process showed that nanoparticles retention/mobilization model worked as it was intended to do it. Hence, this research can be used to supporting techno-economic studies for Well intervention involving nanofluids.

Presented By: 

Ricardo Pastrana Cruz
MSc. Student
University of Sherbrooke

 

An Optimization Method for Steam Injection Distribution in SAGD

Category: Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

Steam injection distribution optimization problem refers to the process of distributing certain amount of high temperature steam among the wells in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) oil field to maximize the total oil production. The steam injection volume of each well should be within a certain range and the total steam volume of the field is also restricted due to the capacity limitation of the steam generation facilities. Careful planning on steam injection volume is critical to improve energy efficiency and production performance of the oil field. Therefore, properly solving this problem is highly appealing to audience from oil and gas industry and scientific field. In this study, a novel optimization method that integrates Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and dynamic programming (DP) is presented to solve the steam injection distribution optimization problem. In the proposed method, LSTM prediction models are constructed based on the historical steam injection and oil production data with the appropriate timesteps selected by genetic algorithm (GA) to predict short-term future oil production of each well. With the result of LSTM prediction model, the DP algorithm starts from optimizing steam injection of a single well in the oil field and then gradually increases the number of wells considered in the algorithm. When the DP optimized the steam injection distribution of all the wells in the field, the maximum oil production of the field therefore obtained. Two pads (Pad C and Pad D) from Suncor MacKay River oil field are used to conduct the three experiments in this study. The objective of the first experiment is to determine the most appropriate timestep for each LSTM prediction model using GA. The result shows that for different prediction model, the selected timestep is also different. The second experiment compares the prediction results between the LSTM prediction model and traditional artificial neural network (ANN) prediction model using root mean squared error, mean absolute error and Pearson correlation coefficient as evaluation metrics. The result demonstrates that the LSTM prediction model achieves better prediction performance than traditional ANN prediction model on all the evaluation metrics. In the third experiment, the proposed steam injection distribution optimization method is applied to the two pads for six months. The result shows that the monthly steam-oil ratios of the two pads for six months are all decreased, and the method improves the oil production of the two pads by 12.25% and 24.07%, respectively. As the novelty of this research, a novel short-term oil production prediction method which combines GA an LSTM is proposed, and DP is first attempted to solve the steam injection distribution optimization problem.

Presenter By:

Changlin Yang
Research Assistant
University of Calgary

Coupling Low Salinity Water Flooding and CO2 Flooding for Sandstone Reservoirs; Low Salinity-Alternating- CO2 Flooding (LSAGF): Lab Test and Simulation

Category: Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

Low salinity (LS) water flooding and CO2 flooding are two novel combination flood was coupled due to the important role of both of methods in increasing oil recovery. LS water was examined by many laboratory and field works and it showed an interesting result in increasing oil recovery. CO2 was tested on increasing oil recovery and the oil recovery increased by improved wettability alteration effect towards more water-wet, and interfacial tension reduction. Although the CO2 showed an improvement in oil recovery, the density difference between CO2 and oil raised a gravity override, channeling, and early breakthrough problems. For that reason, we develop the low salinity alternating CO2 flood in order to gather the benefits of LS itself and to improve sweep efficiency by CO2 and prevented CO2 problems mentioned earlier as well as capturing the CO2 from the atmosphere. Berea sandstone cores with analogous petrophysical properties were saturated with a synthetic formation water, the water was displaced with crude oil to Swi, and then allowed to age for three weeks at 90°C. These cores were then flooded with two pore volume (PV) high salinity (HS) and then followed by one PV LS water at room temperatures. The HS water was identical to the formation water, while the LS water was diluted 100x (symbolized d100HS) from the HS water. HS water was injected into the cores until (Sor) was reached. The new combined technology was conducted by five scenarios on five cores: (1) One PV CO2 followed by two PV LS water. (2) 0.5 PV CO2+ 1 PV LS water + 0.5 PV CO2+ 1 PV LS water. (3) 0.25 PV CO2+ 0.5 LS water + 0.25 CO2+ 0.5 LS water. (4) Same as scenario #1 but with half value back pressure. (5) Huffed 0.9 PV CO2 and puffed it after two hours, then 0.5 LS water was injected+ 0.5CO2 +0.5 LS water. The laboratory experiments of all scenarios showed an incremental oil recovery, but the optimum scenario was the scenario (5) with incremental oil recovery 14.5% of OOIP. The two hours huffing make it easy for the following flooding LSASF. While scenario (3) was the second optimum with incremental oil recovery 11% of OOIP because the short cycle injected of LS water and CO2. This combination technology can solve the CO2 flooding problems and support the CO2 by LS water which is itself has the ability to increase oil recovery by altering the wettability towards more water-wet.

Presented By:

Hasan Al-Saedi
Assistant research professor
Missouri University of Science and Technology

Massive Generation of Gas Nano-Bubbles in Water

Category: Environmental Management

Nanobubbles (NBs) are nanoscale gaseous domains than can exist in bulk liquids or at their solid surfaces. Their appearance in aqueous solutions has attracted significant attention in the last decade due to their apparent long-time stability (over timescales of weeks and months), and high potential for real-world applications by allowing for significantly enhance amounts of gas to be available in solution. Amongst these applications, NBs can be applied towards wastewater treatment, nanoscopic cleaning, microfluidics, hetero-coagulation, and medical applications. However, the generation of NBs has proven to be somewhat difficult and energy intensive, for example involving intense agitation of the solution followed by bubble separation, or using microfluidic flows. Thus, to this point their potential applications have been effectively limited. Although surface NBs have been generated and observed using various experimental methods, bulk-liquid NBs have been much less investigated. Arguments based on Laplace pressure considerations would suggest that bulk NBs should be very transient features in solution, so the origins of their apparent stability has remained elusive. NBs are known to possess negative zeta potentials, resulting in mutual repulsions that are usually sufficiently large to prevent coalescence and slow any buoyancy rise. To explain this behaviour, it has been conjectured that NBs feature a build-up of anions (i.e. OH-) at the gas/liquid interface, yet observations of stable NBs in highly pure water suggest an alternative explanation is needed. In this presentation, we will tackle these pressing and important questions directly. We will demonstrate a novel method for the massive and rapid generate of methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide NBs in bulk aqueous solution with low energy input. Using appropriate experimental probes, for example Dynamic Light Scattering, we characterize the NBs present and confirm their long-time stability. Using both molecular simulations and theoretical development, we also provide a consistent explanation for the apparent stability of aqueous NBs and their measured zeta potentials. This explanation identifies unique features of the air-water interface as the origins for NB behaviour. The work has been accepted for publication in Science Advances (manuscript ID aaz0094) and will appear in early 2020. It is currently under embargo and hence we cannot provide details of the methods or specific results in this abstract. By achieving massive enhancement of bulk-NB formation in water, we are able to realize dramatically elevated levels of gas solubility in water many times the Henry’s-Law solubility. This discovery is expected to have enormous ramifications in, for example, wastewater-treatment and process industries, in addition to significantly accelerating gas-(diffusion)-limited processes. In effect, we realize here “nano-porous liquids” in the form of gas NBs in a simple, facile and energy efficient manner, with highly elevated surface-to-volume ratios in addition to far greater gas-accommodation levels.

Presented By:

Peter Kusalik
Professor of Chemistry
University of Calgary

Is Your Project Using The Master Keys to Success?

Category: People & Talent

According to the article What Are the Causes of Communication Failure?, three (of four) causes of communication failure are related to the use of language. Over 10 years, Orgmetrics asked 134 project teams two questions about their experience with project failure and success: in both cases, over 95% said communication! This presentation discusses common sources of miscommunication, including: 1. Unconscious incompetence; 2. Steep learning curves; and, 3. Different understandings and uses of industry and project terminology. This presentation also describes: 1. The importance of clear communications; 2. How you can use the master keys to generate success for your project; and, 3. Using a project glossary. Some industries and projects use the same terms and words interchangeably to describe various activities and functions. This is not recommended; different terms have different meanings. Also, some industries and projects use different terms to mean the same (or a similar) thing. Confusing? Absolutely! How could it not be? But how can this be addressed? The lack of precise communication can be costly and even mission-critical. The importance of clear communication cannot be understated. The point of clear communication is not to simply to avoid confusion or misunderstandings; clear communication is the engine that drives project success. Precise terminology is the master key to effective communication. Effective communication is the master key to the successful delivery of products and services. Use these master keys to unlock success for your project.

Presented By:

Roy Christensen
Project Success Consultant
KT Project

Synthesis of Artificial Carbonate Rocks: An Innovative and Futuristic Technology for More Reliable Experimental Laboratory Research Representing Carbonate Rocks?

Category: Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

Carbonate rocks are usually distinguished from clastic rocks by their characteristics of high-active mineral content, reduced chemical stability, strong heterogeneities, and secondary pores. It also means that no two carbonate cores are replicable or representatively close enough yield similar results in most laboratory studies. This dramatically limits the feasibility, efficacy, and usefulness of such research. In this work, synthetic carbonate rocks were made of natural calcite, dolomite, and quartz sand of diverse particle size range and in specific proportions by compounding with calcium oxide and other inorganic cementing agents through 2 to 4 stage processes. The muffle furnace was used to sinter at a high temperature (> 400℃). It is followed by a secondary processing stage before synthetic rock formation is completed. The finished artificial cores were compared with the natural core through X-Ray Diffraction (X-RD), casting slice, contact angle test, mercury intrusion method, relative permeability curve, and several smart water core-flooding experiments. The artificial carbonate rocks synthesized in the laboratory with similar porosity and permeability have both primary intergranular pores and secondary pores that simulate denudation or mold pores in the natural carbonate reservoir as well as the pore structure, wettability, mineral composition and seepage characteristics of the natural cores. All these have been tested through a series of lab tests. Due to the high temperature during the core-synthesis process, core-related experiments could also be conducted in the reservoir conditions of high temperature and high pressure. Four core-flooding experiments showed that the injection water containing potential determining ions (PDIs) resulted in a higher displacement efficiency, which is consistent with the experiments conducted in a natural core. Furthermore, the ultimate recovery was also found to be like that of natural cores. This work shows that this artificial core has physicochemical properties like that of the natural core and can meet the requirements for comparative research in the lab to a certain extent. The artificial carbonate core mentioned in this paper meets the conditions of high temperature and pressure, and it can replicate the bimodal pore distribution curve encompassing both primary and secondary pores. Fractures in carbonate rocks can also be designed and represented, if necessary. It will lead to more convincing comparative experiments in the future with further technological advancement, including a custom-designed and fabricated three-dimensional physical model.

Presented By:

Yingfeng Peng
Student
China University of Petroleum Beijing and University of Calgary

New Upscaling Solution for Large Models

Category: Reservoir Engineering

Objectives/Scope In this paper we present an extended local solution for upscaling based on 3D electrical circuits representing variable size grid blocks. Homogeneous parts of models are represented by fewer larger grid blocks while heterogeneous parts are represented by many smaller homogeneous grid blocks. Adaptive octree data structure is implemented in building and simulating models that are equivalent to 109 blocks. Simulations run on a typical laptop in minutes not hours and compare results from nine different upscaling configurations. This solution works well at pore scale and reservoir scale without modeling flow dynamics that limits the model size. Methods, Procedures, Process The upscaling is based on connectivity between two opposite faces of the model and follows principles of capillary pressure tests. In virtual tests at pore scale the wetting and non-wetting fluids interact under varying pressure in the 3D effective network. This process simulates trapping mechanisms when one of the fluids is surrounded by the other fluid type. The model's electrical properties are derived from grid blocks at the lowest octree level through recursive upscaling in a depth-first tree traversal. The resistivity estimates come from three different configurations for electrical circuits representing grid blocks. The first two models correspond to the earliest methods of the porous media simulations and upscaling with bundles of pipes. In the third method, blocks are replaced by sets of six resistors organized as 3D crosses. Sets of eight blocks with the same parent are replaced by 48-element circuits used to estimate the resistance in horizontal and vertical directions. This process models 3D pore connectivity, checks fluid types, and tests path dimensions relatively to the pressure values. This extends simulations with a regular cubic lattice yielding a network coordination number greater than six. Results, Observations, Conclusions Prior to the 100% saturation with the wetting phase, the total porosity, the effective porosity, and the path statistics (tortuosity) between opposite faces in horizontal direction are estimated. During the drainage-imbibition tests the non-wetting and wetting phase percentages with nine resistivity values are recorded at each pressure. The first three resistivity estimates represent arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic averages. Next, two sets of estimates in horizontal and vertical directions are reported. Each set contains the resistivity estimates from the chain, bundle, and mesh algorithms. Different model structures result in varying degrees of the hysteresis in fluid saturations and electric properties during these tests. The most advanced interconnected mesh works best for layered and/or correlated pore networks. Break-through events are detected in drainage and imbibition. 3D and 2D visualizations present models and selected parts of the interconnected network. Novel/Additive Information Differences between nine estimates indicate uncertainties when evaluating bounds in upscaled properties for reservoir simulations. Resistivity can be substituted for permeability transforms.

Presented By:

Leon Fedenczuk
Analytical Consultant
Gambit Consulting Ltd

High Flowrate Production Using Shrouded ByPass Design

Category: Field Development & Infrastructure

1. Objective/Scope: A new concept for high flow applications in slim shrouded ESP system is presented in this abstract, allowing just part of the fluid to pass over the motor for its refrigeration, and other part to bypass the shrouds and get directly into the intake of the pump. Main objective is the optimization of the ESP in such conditions, reducing drop pressures and velocity pass over the motor when its close to its maximum. 2. Methods, Procedures, Process: A new intake was designed especially for this alternative configuration, including two open holes at the top of the hanger shrouds section. The diameter of this holes has the specific size to control how much fluid will go directly into the pump without pass over the shrouds, for a certain range of production fluid. A FEA study was carried out in order to prove the hole system at different flow conditions and insurance the minimum production allowed to keep the motor temperature controlled. Additionally, tests were performed in order to validate the FEA study. 3. Results, observation, conclusions.: There are some restrains on using the 375 series motor on a 4.50” shroud at high flow applications (>400m3/day), long units are normally required to handle the power, and scales and solid can be present in some cases. In such conditions drop pressure starts to be a concern, and also the maximum velocity allowed to avoid erosion-corrosion. Bypassing part of the production fluid will reduce those effects, optimizing the ESP operation in this extremely applications. FEA analysis has been conducted in order to verify the behavior of the production fluid, and it was determined the minimum allowable flowrate to run this configuration. Since were founded high rates of velocity inside of the designed unit, it was property protected against erosion in some specific points. Parts have been assembled successfully, and the well is already assigned for its intervention during the incoming weeks. 4. Novel/Additive information. The novelty of this idea is that it helps on reduce risks on produce high flowrates in shrouded ESP, being able to extend the operating range of the system when a standard configuration is limited by the velocity pass over the motor.

Presented By:

Juan Cruz Pires
Lead Techincal Support
Baker Hughes

A Targeted Catalytic Approach Towards Reducing Diluent in Oil Sands Processes

Category: Field Development & Infrastructure

Recent growth of bitumen production in the Oil Sands has outpaced the construction of new takeaway capacity, causing a widening of the heavy-to-light differential and a deterioration in the profitability of many SAGD producers. Coupled with staunch opposition to the timely approval and construction of new pipelines, this environment is set to remain for the near-term, causing many to search for cost-effective alternatives for bitumen transportation. Within this paper, we describe the development of a novel technology, which represents a viable and actionable process for reducing the volume of diluent required to produce a transportable product by up to 50% while simultaneously increasing existing transportation infrastructure by 15%. The approach detailed here centers on building a fundamental understanding of the asphaltenic fraction of a given bitumen - believed to drive the viscous nature of heavier crudes - followed by the rational design of a catalyst system best-suited to breakdown these larger and less-mobile components. While virtually impossible to completely describe native asphaltene structure, the use of powerful analytical tools and techniques does allow for the direct characterization of various structural moieties present within the range of asphaltene molecules. Provided this information, molecular models are deployed to evaluate the near-infinite number of possible chemical conformations, proposing a most energetically-favoured, and therefore, statistically-likely, asphaltene molecule that satisfies said analytical analysis. Lastly, quantum mechanical methods are applied to identify and rationally design reaction conditions tailored for the target chemical structure to maximize reactivity. The ultimate result is a mild-catalytic system capable of significant modification of the heavier components of bitumen, drastically reducing viscosity by more than 95%, while utilizing a lower thermal input (below 350ºC) than traditional catalytic approaches deployed at the refinery. An intended side-effect of this low-severity approach is the suppression of elimination reaction products, minimizing the formation of undesired by-products such as olefins (confirmed via 1H NMR), the existence of which prohibits the ability to blend the crude product with existing market pools. By avoiding the formation of olefins, this approach negates the need for post-reaction hydrotreatment, thereby minimizing process complexity, leading to a more seamless integration into existing upstream facilities. In addition to the presentation of extensive laboratory data supporting the viability of this approach, recent results generated at the field-level will also be presented as we are currently operating a 500 barrel per day (emulsion basis) demonstration unit at a SAGD facility in a joint project with a prominent Canadian firm.

Presented By:

Sivaram Pradhan
Research Scientist
Nextstream

Stranded Gas Utilization via Small Scale LNG

Category: Field Development & Infrastructure

Stranded gas fields make up an estimated 40 ? 60% of the world’s current proven gas reserves and cannot be exploited usually due to either Geographical remoteness from consuming markets or unfavorable Economics through conventional development approach due to insufficient Gas Reserves. This has resulted in a drive to develop technologies to allow efficient and cost-effective monetization of these Resources. Using a case study of a field in Kalimantan, Indonesia with 25 MMSCFD production potential as base case, this project reviews Market dynamics, evaluates virtual pipeline applications for gas distribution, available technologies and explores value chain to identify best offering to deliver gas to Market. Study further analyzes the Economic viability of chosen LNG small-scale solution with focus on key parameters including project CAPEX, OPEX, Gas volumes and realizable gas sales price and their impact on project Economic indicators. Economic analysis of the base case shows project is only marginally positive, but can be improved through capacity upscaling when more gas supply from neighboring fields become available, so modularized package type plants can offer advantages in terms of flexibility for future integration. This ensures that the system is optimally sized at all times, allowing minimization of CAPEX. All the economic analysis indicator show that the project is profitable at the moment (NPV 10% = 8.47 MMUSD, IRR = 11.1%, payback period is 9.3 year). Sensitivity analysis shows that production, gas prices and CAPEX give great impact into economic viability of the project. There are two ways to make the project more profitable: Field management is one of the most essential solution (current recovery factor is 66%, the operator must increase recovery factor or must find additional gas sources to increase daily production of the project). Operator also need to control CAPEX very strictly to keep the project profitable during both development phase and production phase. It was found that this business case has demonstrated project viability, through small scale LNG. Moreover, it can be illustrated that the production, price and capital expenditure have massive impact into economic viability. Likewise, the project profitability can be improved by integrated field management and additional gas supplies. Furthermore, with anticipated growth in gas demand, small scale LNG is expected to play a bigger role in the future in monetizing stranded gas. In addition to that, the integrated value chain approach and development concept can be adapted to utilize not only similar stranded field opportunities but also flared gas resources. Finally, exploiting and developing the micro-LNG business could provide added enhancement in the oil and gas industry as it could possibly be replacing diesel and fuel oil with natural gas which will have a huge positive environmental impact in terms of reduced greenhouse gas emissions. "

Presented By:

Dwi Nuraini Siregar
Project Management Staff
SKK Migas